Why Hasn’t Functional Profiling Been More Broadly Accepted in the United States?

This is an interesting question. One that my colleagues in the field and I have often pondered. Is it that American medicine is more conservative than European and Asian medicines? Are we late adopters? Do we hold medical tests and treatments to a higher standard? Are American doctors too wedded to protocol therapies? Is it cooperative groups that guide all of our decisions? NCCN guideline? Pharmaceutical marketing?

Or is it possible that a small number of opinion leaders opted out of the field and have done their best to take everyone else with them?

I would say it is the latter.

In some ways, the slow adoption of these techniques — compared with Europe and Asia — does reflect the relative conservatism of American medicine. We have been slow to adopt acupuncture and incorporate diet and lifestyle changes into medical therapy, despite their manifest importance. We are often slower to improve drugs, even when they establish clinical utility in well-conducted foreign trials. So, there may indeed be a component of late adoption and conservatism.

However, The re-importation of technologies is not only seen in the medical community. The early adoption of transistor technology by the Japanese despite their development by American inventors; the late adoption of robotics and fuzzy logic by Americans; and our tardiness in adopting smaller, more fuel-efficient automobiles all illustrate this point. But, the most vexing hurdle of all has been the dismissal by mostly university-based investigators who have weighed in against the adoption of human tissue tests for the prediction of response to chemotherapeutics.

These investigators — who, in aggregate, provide care to less than 10 percent of the cancer patients in need — have an inordinate amount of influence upon the application of novel technologies. In what can only be viewed as a sour grapes phenomenon, many of these physicians even tried to apply early forms of human tumor study in their own labs and medical centers.

The utter failure of the clonogenic assay in the 70s and 80s and related growth-based technologies, poisoned these academics and closed their minds to newer developments based on the modern discoveries of apoptosis and other forms of programmed call death. When we, and our colleagues, reported discoveries using these more modern endpoints, the academic community turned a deaf ear. As our data improved, they dug in their heels. And when the data rose to the level of the best peer reviewed journals in the field, the critics became ever more vocal.

We can now thank these “scientists” for putting the United States behind Europe and Asia in the adoption of these important methodologies. While patients in America must struggle with their physicians to get ex-vivo analyses conducted, children in Europe with leukemia have immediate access to these tests. Adults in England with leukemia can all request these assays, German patients regularly take advantage of assay methodologies. And the Japanese often apply related techniques for the treatment of their solid tumors.

Not unlike robotics, total quality management and fuel-efficient automobiles, the Americans (who invented in vitro chemosensitivity testing) will again be importing the technology that they are responsible for developing.