Cancer Survival and Matrimony: A Marriage Made In Heaven

JCO coverThe November 1, 2013 issue of the Journal of Clinical Oncology (Marital Status and Survival in Patients with Cancer, Aizer, A. et al J Clin Oncol, 2013), reports a study by investigators from Harvard University. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data they examined more than 1.2 million cancer patients diagnosed between 2004 and 2008 to measure the impact of marital status on overall survival. Results reveal a statistically significant impact of marriage on cancer survival. The benefit slightly favored males over female, but remained significant across different diseases and for never married, separated, divorced or widowed. The authors note, “The survival benefit associated with marriage was larger than the published survival benefit of chemotherapy.”

Epidemiologic studies that correlate disease states with socioeconomic status, level of education, geographic location, lifestyle or diet are fraught with confounding variables. Nonetheless, well-done studies can open a wealth of interesting questions regarding non-treatment related aspects of our health and well-being. This study is provocative for it identifies the interaction between marital status and stage at diagnosis, as well as overall survival.

There are many ways one might interpret the findings. The accompanying editorial (Marriage Is as Protective as Chemotherapy in Cancer Care, Kissane, D) notes that non-married status may reflect “reduced adherence to state-of-the-art treatment.” That, we presume, would include such variables as regular physicals, frequency of mammograms, PSA evaluations, willingness to undergo surgery or the use of adjuvant treatments. The role of depression is also noted. While all of these may apply, they have a self-serving ring, whereby good health, it would seem, can only be attributed to good doctoring. Controversies surrounding PSA screening or the impact of “annual physicals” on general health are but a few examples where more may not necessarily be better.

While it may be argued that unmarried individuals fail to obtain adequate medical care, the data may reflect somethinAA010368g more profound, the psychoneuroimmunology of cancer survivorship. That is, each patient’s capacity to will-themselves better. The will-to-live is enhanced by close human relationships. We are all witness to patients who survive against all odds. They are usually filled with zeal, willing to go to whatever lengths are required to overcome their illness and most have close interpersonal relationships, nurturing environments, loving families or husbands and wives who dote on them.

Norman Cousins spoke at length about the healing force of one’s emotional and spiritual belief systems in his own battle with ankylosing spondylitis (Anatomy of An Illness, As Perceived by the Patient, 1979). Might his experience reflect a similar dynamic to that described in the current study? My patient Alan Kapuler’s excellent outcome over Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, described in my book (Outliving Cancer, 2013, chapter 12) exemplifies this same mind-over-matter dedication, characteristic of many of our long-term survivors.

I applaud Dr. Aizer and his co- investigators for examining this aspect of cancer survivorship. I am impressed that such a report would find its way onto the pages of the Journal of Clinical Oncology. However, I am less certain that these good outcomes reflect state-of-the-art treatment and more of the opinion that married patients may be part of a happier, healthier, better adjusted and more humanly connected population. Interpersonal relationships are not devices. They cannot be patented or sold. However, as can be seen from this study, they may be among the most powerful interventions at our disposal in the management of advanced cancer.

About Dr. Robert A. Nagourney
Dr. Nagourney received his undergraduate degree in chemistry from Boston University and his doctor of medicine at McGill University in Montreal, where he was a University Scholar. After a residency in internal medicine at the University of California, Irvine, he went on to complete fellowship training in medical oncology at Georgetown University, as well as in hematology at the Scripps Institute in La Jolla. During his fellowship at Georgetown University, Dr. Nagourney confronted aggressive malignancies for which the standard therapies remained mostly ineffective. No matter what he did, all of his patients died. While he found this “standard of care” to be unacceptable, it inspired him to return to the laboratory where he eventually developed “personalized cancer therapy.” In 1986, Dr. Nagourney, along with colleague Larry Weisenthal, MD, PhD, received a Phase I grant from a federally funded program and launched Oncotech, Inc. They began conducting experiments to prove that human tumors resistant to chemotherapeutics could be re-sensitized by pre-incubation with calcium channel blockers, glutathione depletors and protein kinase C inhibitors. The original research was a success. Oncotech grew with financial backing from investors who ultimately changed the direction of the company’s research. The changes proved untenable to Dr. Nagourney and in 1991, he left the company he co-founded. He then returned to the laboratory, and developed the Ex-vivo Analysis - Programmed Cell Death ® (EVA-PCD) test to identify the treatments that would induce programmed cell death, or “apoptosis.” He soon took a position as Director of Experimental Therapeutics at the Cancer Institute of Long Beach Memorial Medical Center. His primary research project during this time was chronic lymphocytic leukemia. He remained in this position until the basic research program funding was cut, at which time he founded Rational Therapeutics in 1995. It is here where the EVA-PCD test is used to identity the drug, combinations of drugs or targeted therapies that will kill a patient's tumor - thus providing patients with truly personalized cancer treatment plans. With the desire to change how cancer care is delivered, he became Medical Director of the Todd Cancer Institute at Long Beach Memorial in 2003. In 2008, he returned to Rational Therapeutics full time to rededicate his time and expertise to expand the research opportunities available through the laboratory. He is a frequently invited lecturer for numerous professional organizations and universities, and has served as a reviewer and on the editorial boards of several journals including Clinical Cancer Research, British Journal of Cancer, Gynecologic Oncology, Cancer Research and the Journal of Medicinal Food.

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