Emerging Therapies in Breast Cancer: a Focus on Triple Negative Disease

As our understanding of breast cancer biology continues to advance, this disease has come to be understood as many different diseases. Original categorizations based on histology lead to lobular versus ductal subtypes. Thereafter, recognition of estrogen and progesterone status, and finally HER2 status provided further subcategorizations. Over the past decade, molecular subtypes have characterized this disease into a series of signatures characterized by luminal, basal and other groupings with distinct prognoses. Within the context of these categories, the triple negative breast cancers have emerged as an important target. These patients whose tumors do not mark for estrogen, progesterone, or HER2 on immunohistochemical or FISH analyses, appear to carry features that segregate them into a BRCA1-like biology. This is of great interest clinically for it offers the opportunity to treat these patients with drugs found active in the BRCA mutant populations. Among the most active drugs in these patients are the PARP inhibitors. The excellent results with PARP inhibitors and BRCA mutants have been followed by striking response and survival data combining PARP inhibitors with carbo-platinum and gemcitabine. PARP inhibitors by inhibiting DNA damage response can enhance the effects of ionizing radiation, mustard alkylators, topoisomerase inhibitors, platins, and intercalating agents. We have explored the biology of PARP inhibitors in breast and other cancers. In these investigations, our lab to applies the EVA-PCD™ platform to understand how PARP inhibitors enhance the effects of drugs and drug combinations. To date, we have observed good activity for the PARP inhibitors as single agents in BRCA1 positive patients, and in some triple negative patients. More interesting, will be the results combining the PARP inhibitors with mustard alkylators, platins, and drug combinations to optimize PARP inhibitor combinations. This work is ongoing in triple negative and BRCA positive patients as well as other tumor types where the PARP inhibitors may prove useful in the future.

About Dr. Robert A. Nagourney
Dr. Nagourney received his undergraduate degree in chemistry from Boston University and his doctor of medicine at McGill University in Montreal, where he was a University Scholar. After a residency in internal medicine at the University of California, Irvine, he went on to complete fellowship training in medical oncology at Georgetown University, as well as in hematology at the Scripps Institute in La Jolla. During his fellowship at Georgetown University, Dr. Nagourney confronted aggressive malignancies for which the standard therapies remained mostly ineffective. No matter what he did, all of his patients died. While he found this “standard of care” to be unacceptable, it inspired him to return to the laboratory where he eventually developed “personalized cancer therapy.” In 1986, Dr. Nagourney, along with colleague Larry Weisenthal, MD, PhD, received a Phase I grant from a federally funded program and launched Oncotech, Inc. They began conducting experiments to prove that human tumors resistant to chemotherapeutics could be re-sensitized by pre-incubation with calcium channel blockers, glutathione depletors and protein kinase C inhibitors. The original research was a success. Oncotech grew with financial backing from investors who ultimately changed the direction of the company’s research. The changes proved untenable to Dr. Nagourney and in 1991, he left the company he co-founded. He then returned to the laboratory, and developed the Ex-vivo Analysis - Programmed Cell Death ® (EVA-PCD) test to identify the treatments that would induce programmed cell death, or “apoptosis.” He soon took a position as Director of Experimental Therapeutics at the Cancer Institute of Long Beach Memorial Medical Center. His primary research project during this time was chronic lymphocytic leukemia. He remained in this position until the basic research program funding was cut, at which time he founded Rational Therapeutics in 1995. It is here where the EVA-PCD test is used to identity the drug, combinations of drugs or targeted therapies that will kill a patient's tumor - thus providing patients with truly personalized cancer treatment plans. With the desire to change how cancer care is delivered, he became Medical Director of the Todd Cancer Institute at Long Beach Memorial in 2003. In 2008, he returned to Rational Therapeutics full time to rededicate his time and expertise to expand the research opportunities available through the laboratory. He is a frequently invited lecturer for numerous professional organizations and universities, and has served as a reviewer and on the editorial boards of several journals including Clinical Cancer Research, British Journal of Cancer, Gynecologic Oncology, Cancer Research and the Journal of Medicinal Food.

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