Chemosensitivity Testing Captures Attention of “Nature Biotechnology”

Nature Biotech largecoverAn interesting editorial appeared in the February 2013 issue of Nature Biotechnology titled “Dishing out cancer treatment.” The lead line reads, “Despite their limitations, in-vitro assays are a simple means for assessing the drug sensitivity of a patient’s cancer . . . we think assays deserve a second look.”

The author describes the unequivocal appeal of laboratory analyses that are capable of selecting drugs and combinations for individual patients. At a time when 100’s of new drugs are in development, drug discovery platforms that can mimic human tumor response in the laboratory are becoming increasingly attractive to patients and the pharmaceutical industry. While the author, rooted in contemporary molecular biology, examines the field through the lens of genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic profiling, he recognizes that these analyte-based approaches cannot capture the tumor in its microenvironment, yet we now recognize that these micro-environmental influences are critical to accurate response prediction.

As one reads this piece, it is instructive to remember that no other platform can examine the dynamic interaction between cells and their microenvironment. No other platform can examine drug synergy. And no other platform can examine drug sequence.

It is these complexities however, that will guide the next generation of drug tests and ultimately the process of drug discovery. Even the most ardent adherents to genomic profiling must ultimately recognize that genotype does not equal phenotype. Yet, it is the tumor phenotype that we must study.

I am gratified that the editors of so august a journal as Nature Biotechnology have taken the time to reexamine this important field. Perhaps, if our most scientific colleagues are beginning to recognize the importance of functional analyses, it may be only a matter of time before the clinical oncology community follows suit.

The editor’s final line is poignant, “After years spent on the sidelines, perhaps in-vitro screening methods deserve another look.” We couldn’t agree more.

About Dr. Robert A. Nagourney
Dr. Nagourney received his undergraduate degree in chemistry from Boston University and his doctor of medicine at McGill University in Montreal, where he was a University Scholar. After a residency in internal medicine at the University of California, Irvine, he went on to complete fellowship training in medical oncology at Georgetown University, as well as in hematology at the Scripps Institute in La Jolla. During his fellowship at Georgetown University, Dr. Nagourney confronted aggressive malignancies for which the standard therapies remained mostly ineffective. No matter what he did, all of his patients died. While he found this “standard of care” to be unacceptable, it inspired him to return to the laboratory where he eventually developed “personalized cancer therapy.” In 1986, Dr. Nagourney, along with colleague Larry Weisenthal, MD, PhD, received a Phase I grant from a federally funded program and launched Oncotech, Inc. They began conducting experiments to prove that human tumors resistant to chemotherapeutics could be re-sensitized by pre-incubation with calcium channel blockers, glutathione depletors and protein kinase C inhibitors. The original research was a success. Oncotech grew with financial backing from investors who ultimately changed the direction of the company’s research. The changes proved untenable to Dr. Nagourney and in 1991, he left the company he co-founded. He then returned to the laboratory, and developed the Ex-vivo Analysis - Programmed Cell Death ® (EVA-PCD) test to identify the treatments that would induce programmed cell death, or “apoptosis.” He soon took a position as Director of Experimental Therapeutics at the Cancer Institute of Long Beach Memorial Medical Center. His primary research project during this time was chronic lymphocytic leukemia. He remained in this position until the basic research program funding was cut, at which time he founded Rational Therapeutics in 1995. It is here where the EVA-PCD test is used to identity the drug, combinations of drugs or targeted therapies that will kill a patient's tumor - thus providing patients with truly personalized cancer treatment plans. With the desire to change how cancer care is delivered, he became Medical Director of the Todd Cancer Institute at Long Beach Memorial in 2003. In 2008, he returned to Rational Therapeutics full time to rededicate his time and expertise to expand the research opportunities available through the laboratory. He is a frequently invited lecturer for numerous professional organizations and universities, and has served as a reviewer and on the editorial boards of several journals including Clinical Cancer Research, British Journal of Cancer, Gynecologic Oncology, Cancer Research and the Journal of Medicinal Food.

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